Age and Language Acquisition

Navigating the Impact of Age on Language Acquisition

Imagine a world where learning another language was as effortless as learning your native language. Now, consider that your age might be the secret code that unlocks – or limits- this linguistic superpower. In this post, you’ll learn how age shapes our ability to master a new language. 

Various factors can explain how age is an essential factor in second language learning. The critical period hypothesis, cognitive development in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood language learning challenges. 

age and language acquisition

In this exploration of language acquisition, you’ll uncover the secrets that age holds in learning a new language. Whether you’re a curious language enthusiast, a concerned parent, or someone wanting to learn a language, this post will help you understand how age influences language acquisition. 

Language acquisition is influenced by various factors that, in most cases, we cannot control. Age, native language characteristics, learning environment, motivation, and cognitive abilities influence language acquisition. My post, “Factors that influence second language acquisition,” provides an overview of each factor. 

Critical Period Hypothesis

The age a person has when they begin to acquire or learn a language is one of the most important factors influencing language acquisition. The critical period hypothesis is one well-known hypothesis that helps explain the effects of age and second language acquisition. Hartshorne and colleagues (2018) refer to the critical period as the time when adults’ ability to acquire a language diminishes. 

However, the researchers point out that a person’s ability to acquire a language does not mean that ability disappears. A study in 2018 by Hartshorne and colleagues pointed out that children who begin to learn a language before the age of 10 to 12 can acquire the language better than older peers. Consequently, language learners under 12 are in the period for language acquisition.

Cognitive Development and Early Childhood

When we talk about age, we must also refer to cognitive development in early childhood. Cognitive factors such as brain plasticity and memory development play a crucial role in language acquisition during childhood. Young children are thought to have a heightened capacity for learning languages effortlessly and achieving native-like proficiency.

Younger learners are thought to be more flexible in their thinking, making it easier to understand and pick up the way sentences are formed and the specific sounds of a new language. For this reason, there seems to be an advantage to second language acquisition when children are exposed at an early age. A wealth of research supports early childhood exposure, such as dual language programming in elementary schools.

It’s important to note that over time, neural plasticity and cognitive flexibility changes, due to age-related differences. These changes affect the ease with which individuals can learn a new language in adulthood.

Adolescence and Adulthood Language Learning Challenges

Unlike early childhood, language acquisition during adolescence and adulthood comes with various challenges and opportunities. Some challenges include:

  • Reduced Cognitive Plasticity: As individuals age, cognitive flexibility and adaptability may decline, making it potentially more challenging to grasp new grammatical structures and linguistic nuances.
  • Accent and Pronunciation Difficulties: Older learners may find it harder to acquire a native-like accent and pronunciation as speech motor skills become more established and resistant to change with age.
  • Time Constraints: Adolescents and adults often have busy schedules with work, education, and other responsibilities, limiting the time available for language learning compared to younger individuals who may have more flexible schedules.
  • Fear of Making Mistakes: Older learners may be more self-conscious about making mistakes, which can hinder their willingness to practice and use the language, an essential aspect of language acquisition.
  • Interference from Native Language: Adolescents and adults may face interference from their native language, leading to challenges in adjusting to the new language’s syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation.

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Some opportunities include:

  • Cognitive Maturity: Older learners often possess well-developed cognitive skills, analytical thinking, and a better understanding of language structure, which can be advantageous in grasping complex grammar rules and abstract concepts.
  • Motivation and Goal Setting: Adolescents and adults may have clearer motivations for learning a second language, such as career advancement, travel, or personal enrichment. This strong motivation can drive sustained effort and focus.
  • Varied Learning Resources: With the advancement of technology, there are abundant resources available for language learning, including online courses, language apps, and virtual immersion experiences, which individuals of all ages can easily access.
  • Life Experience and Cultural Awareness: Older learners often bring a wealth of life experiences to language learning, enhancing their ability to understand and appreciate the cultural nuances embedded in the language.
  • Autonomous Learning: Adolescents and adults can control their learning process more, setting goals and choosing methods that align with their learning styles. This autonomy can lead to more effective and personalized learning experiences.

While there are challenges associated with learning a second language during adolescence and adulthood, there are also unique opportunities. The critical period hypothesis suggests that the effort required to attain native-like proficiency in a second language increases as individuals age. Grammar rules, phonetics, and cultural nuances may become more challenging for older learners.

Accent and Pronunciation Challenges

Older learners might face greater difficulty acquiring a native-like accent, with some arguing that the critical period impacts the ability to produce certain sounds accurately. It’s important to note that individual differences play a significant role. Some older learners may still achieve a high level of proficiency, while some younger learners may struggle. Motivation, exposure, and learning strategies also contribute to language acquisition success.  


As one factor that influences language acquisition, age is one of the most critical factors to consider. The critical age hypothesis explains how age affects a person’s critical period of language learning. Specific differences, including challenges and opportunities, exist during early childhood and at a later age.

Share in the comment area. At what age did you start learning another language?

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